The important part of the speech said by President Soekarno was quoted as follows:
" â€¦â€¦â€¦. Yesterday morning, Muso had launched a military coup against the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and established the Soviet Government led by Muso. This military coup against the Government of the Republic of Indonesia is the start of Muso to try to control totally the Government of the Republic of Indonesia. It was apparently the armed riot that happened in Solo recently and the military coup under the leadership of Muso in Madiun yesterday did not happen separately, but both action are connected each other as one action to topple totally the Government of the Republic of Indonesia."
" â€¦â€¦ Support the Government, support the Government apparatus with all of your strength to crush all of parts of the kind rebellion and to reinstall the justified Government of the respective region. Grasp up Madiun, Madiun has to be grasped up and put it back in our armed again."
The Radio of The Republic of Indonesia was one of the main broadcasting system of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia after the Proclamation of the Indonesian Independence on August 17, 1945. The Radio of The Republic of Indonesia were installed in all regions of the Republic of Indonesia. Beside of its own regional program, all of the Radio of The Republic of Indonesia have to relay the broadcasting on the national and important news broadcasted by the Radio of the Republic of Indonesia in Yogyakarta.
The speech of President Soekarno broadcasted through the Radio of The Republic of Indonesia of Yogyakarta, on September 19, 1948 was released by the Government of the Republic of Indonesia in Yogyakarta to especially inform all the Citizens of The Republic of Indonesia about the political situation of the Country.
President Soekarno was informing that a serious political and military threat had emerged in the Country posed by Muso's Communist Movement, the political and military coup in Madiun declared by Muso on September 18, 1948 one day before and the decision of the Government of The Republic of Indonesia to crush the political and military respective coup posed by Muso.
What has actually happened in the Country of Republic of Indonesia in the month of September of the year of 1948 ?. Who is Muso the one who lead the political and military coup in Madiun as the start to topple totally the Government of the Republic of Indonesia that was historically proclaimed on August 17, 1945 led by President Soekarno and Vice President Drs Moh Hatta?.
Muso was the Communist activist who was involving in the armed rebellion in 1926 against the Dutch Colonialist and when the rebellion was crushed by the Dutch Colonialist government, Muso escaped to Rusia and he just returned to Indonesia on August 11, 1948 after 22 years living in Rusia. He was greeted by the group of the Communist Movement and supported by Amir Syarifudin Muso was elected as the Secretary General of the Group of the Communist Movement existing in Indonesia let by Wikana .
Muso being the most senior among the Communist activist in Indonesia was then elected as the Chairman of the Communist Party of Indonesia.
This new Communist Party of Indonesia (CPI) was the political party resulted by the political unification among The Group of Communist Movement led by Wikana, the Peoples Democratic Front led by Amir Syarifudfin and The Socialist Group under Sutan Syahrir.
However the Socialist Group under Sutan Syahrir then quit from the unification and founding the Socialist Party of Indonesia (SPI) opposing the Communist Party of Indonesia (CPI). CPI and SPI became two enmity political parties along the history of the political parties in Indonesia.
Muso after assuming the job as the Chairman of the Communist Party of Indonesia declared that the Communist Party of Indonesia adopts the revolutionary character in its struggle, declaring the new strategy of the Indonesian struggle that is called the "New Way of the Indonesian Revolution" that was designed to be under the command and control of Communist Party of Indonesia (CPI). Muso strongly criticized the Government led by President Soekarno and Vice President Hatta and demanding the implementation of the parliamentary political system instead of Presidential political system.
He demanded the Cabinet under Prime Minister and who is also Vice President Hatta to be dissolved and the new Cabinet to be formed based on the parliamentary system. With the Parliamentary political system, CPI wished to have chance to lead the Government.
On September 18, 1948, the Communist Party of Indonesia under the leadership of Muso and Amir Syarifudin launched a political and military coup in Madiun, East of Solo, to establish the Soviet Republic based on the National United Front as the government of Indonesia.
The speech of President Soekarno was made to express the Government attitude to keep the Indonesian citizens to stay quietly as usual and the Government of the Republic of Indonesia under the leadership of President Soekarno and Vice President Hatta is still the authorized Government of the Republic of Indonesia to lead the country in defending the Indonesian independence.
In the declaration released on September 18, 1948 through the Radio of The Republic of Indonesia in Madiun, by Soemarsono, who was the leader of the Communist Military Wing it was said that the National United Front as the new Government of Indonesia is established under the leadership of Muso.
Just to note: The Soviet Republic is the typical political system of Russia and the National United Front is the typical political doctrine of the Chinese Communist to unite all the political strength of the country under the leadership of Communist Party China. Muso who was 22 years to live in Rusia, beside respecting Lenin of Rusia, he was also likely leaning to the political doctrine of the Chinese Communist in grasping political power in China.
The episode of the Communist movement in Indonesia especially in the month of September in the year of 1948, is likely necessary to be revealed continuously informing all the new generation of this country in order to realize that the "September 30, Movement" that happened 17 years later (1965), to be apparently the gigantic radicalism and cruel action that was similar to the political and military coup action of the Communist Party of Indonesia (CPI) as it was done by the CPI in September 1948 in Madiun.
Definitely the objective of the review of the history is to remind all those young generation of Indonesia to prevent the Communist Party or its modification to rise again in Indonesia.
The History of the Communist Party of Indonesia (CPI)
Marxism and Communist ideology started to influence a number of young educated Indonesian after the Russian Revolution to take place in the beginning of the twentieth century.
Recognizing the character of the Communist leadership is considered necessary, in order to be able preventing the rise of communism. The composition of the Communist generation in Indonesia likely could be described commonly are as follows:
The Old or the Most Senior Communist leaders were among others Semaun, Sudarsono, Wikana, as the most active communist figures to spread off the Marxism and Communism among various group of people, such as the labors and the student.
They were very militant but not radical. They could be called as the Founder of the Communist Political Power in Indonesia. They were active between 1920 until around 1950. They were also considered as the Nationalist who are active to combat the Dutch Colonialist.
Second Generation of the Senior Communist Political Activists: Muso and Amir Syarifudin were considered as the second generation of the Communist activist.
This two communist figure were active in the Country after the Indonesian proclamation in 1945. Amir Syarifudin was active in Indonesia as the leader of Labor Party, never leave the country. He is the leader of the Peoples Democratic Front, the unification of Marxist organizations around 1948.
Muso was a radical communist, leaving Indonesia around 1926 and lived in Rusia around 22 years. He returned to Indonesia in August 11, 1948. Muso and Amir were the founder of the Communist Party of Indonesia (CPI) in 1948. Muso was considered as the youngest figures among the first generation of the Communist figures. Muso and Amir were the main leaders in the Communist Political Wing of the political and military coup of CPI in September 1948.
New Generation of the Communist activist such as DN Aidit, Sudisman, Nyoto, Lukman etc. They were considered as the main supporters of Muso and Amir Syarifudin in the military and political coup of the Communist Party of Indonesia in Madiun in September 1948 as the juniors activists of the Communist Political Wing.
As the impact of the failure of the Political and Military coup of the Communist Party on September 1948, DN Aidit, Sudisman, Nyoto and Lukman were escaping abroad and they returned to Indonesia around 1950. They were then elected as the CPI leadership since 1950. DN Aidit was a brilliant politician and to have the strong leadership and together with Lukman, Sudisman and Nyoto as the key figures of the Political Breau of the CVPI Centrtal Committee, this gang of four became the powerful political figures in the Country between 1950 - 1965. President Soekarno was apparently respecting spectacularly DN Aidit and Nyoto.
DN Aidit, Lukman, Sudisman and Nyoto as the key members of the Political Bureau of the Communist Party Central Committee, were the Center of the power of CPI. This group were considered to decide the kidnapping and to kill if necessary of those army generals considered as the members of the Council of Generals on September 30, 1965.
Special Bureau of the Communist Party of Indonesia. After the failure of the military coup in September 1948 DN Aidit realized that beside its political power the armed strength as the military wing of the Communist Movement is also important to be built.
The so called The 29 th Brigade of the armed unit in the struggle against the Dutch was apparently the People's armed units with the members were mainly the Communist Youth under the command and control of Soemarsono.
The failure of the political and military coup in Madiun in September 1948 was analyzed by DN Aidit because there was no cordial cooperation between Muso as the leader of the CPI Central Committee as the Political Wing with The 29 th Brigade under Soemarsono as the Military Wing.
DN Aidit based on the bad experience of the political and military coup in Madiun in 1948, had founded a group of underground cadres called as the Special Bureau of the Communist Party of Indonesia, namely Sam Kamaruzaman and Bono as the main members.
The Special Bureau of The Communist Party of Indonesia is directly reporting their mission to DN Aidit. Special Bureau members had the mission to coordinate with the Military wing. Just to note: It was apparently the September 30 Movement as the Military Wing of the CPI was apparently weak.
The set back of the Struggle against the Dutch invasion
Amir Syarifudin when he was the Prime Minister and Minister of Defense he had made a great mistake with his willingness to sign the Renville Agreement with the Dutch. In this Agreement the Government of Indonesia recognized the presence of the Dutch Military and Civilian Administration in Indonesia.
It is also agreed that the Indonesian Armed Forces should withdraw behind the demarcation line called "Van Mook" Line. Because of this mistake Amir Syarifudin was replaced by Vice President Hatta as the Prime Minister who was also the Minister of Defense.
Before his resignation, politically being a Communist activist Amir Syarifudin as the Prime Minister and also the Minister of Defense was trying to reform the military (TNI) to become smaller and to be put under the command and control of the Minister of Defense that is in his occupation. At the same time the Government officially will strengthen the People's Armed Unit influenced by the CPI. This program was called the Reformation and the Rationalization of the Defense Force. This issue popularly called Re-Ra of Defense Force.
The 29 th Brigade led by Soemarsono, as the People's armed unit actually it was the Communist Military Wing of CPI, because most of the members of the The 29 th Brigade were the members of Communist Youth.
Because of his mistake in the Renville Agreement, Amir Syarifudin was dismissed from the Prime Minister and Minister of Defense jobs replaced by Vice President Hatta as the Prime Minister and also the Minister of Defense. Re-Ra Program was changed by Prime Minister Hatta, The 29 th Brigade instead of modernized it was transferred to become the Reserve Unit.
The 29 th Brigade before Re-Ra was implemented moved to Madiun to consolidate its strength. The 29 th Brigade was the armed strength to back up the political and military coup of the Communist Party of Indonesia in Madiun, as declared by Soemarsono through the Radio of The Republic of Indonesia in Madiun on September 18, 1948. On September 18, 1948 The 29 th Brigade was totally controlled the Madiun region.
However on September 30, 1948 all the military strength of the 29 th Brigade supporting the CPI coup in Madiun was crushed and Madiun residency was totally controlled by TNI. Unfortunately two month after the collapsed of the Communist coup in Madiun (October and November 1948) the Dutch military launched its second military invasion on December 8, 1948. President Soekarno and a number of Ministers in Yogyakarta were caught and detained by the Dutch.
Communist Party of Indonesia was saved from legal action because CPI leaders could not be sent to Court. Instead of to bring the Communist Party to Court, the Communist Party of Indonesia survived and to be allowed joining the General Election in 1955.
The Communist Party of Indonesia was permanently existing and even becoming bigger political party and it was successful to become as the winner gaining number four in the general election to elect the members of the Constitutional Assembly (MPR) in 1955. CPI could not be brought to Court for justice, however almost all of the leaders of the rebellion to include Muso and Amir Syarifudin were shot during the hunting operation by the military. DN Aidit supported by Sudisman, Lukman and Nyoto rose to power and they were successful to save the CPI.
They apparently are becoming the powerful leaders of the Communist Party of Indonesia and they were the group to make the decision to kidnap a group of generals described as the members of The Council of the General on September 30, 1965.
Marxism is the social philosophy formulated by Karl Marx as the concept to build the human life characterized by the prosperity and equality. Lenin being a politician thought that to implement Marxism being a philosophy into practical life should be adopted as the political concept of the Communist State and for that purpose it should be formed The Communist Party.
Communist Political Party is the only mean to establish the Communist State.
To reach the goal of Marxism, the movement of the Communist Movement should be supported by the Political Wing and the Military Wing that cordially work. The failure of the Communist coup in September 1948 in Madiun was caused mainly by the weak leadership of the Communist Party of Indonesia to control the political and military wing in the action.
This bad experience has inspired DN Aidit to create the Special Bureau members of the CPI. This is the beginning of the September 30 Movement in 1965.
*) The writer is a Political and Security Observer.